Normal and Crosswind Take-off and Climb
OBJECTIVE: To develop the pilot’s skill and knowledge of normal and crosswind takeoffs and climbs.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
Notes for Students:
- When planning take-off procedures, you (the pilot) should have a point in mind along the runway in which should the airplane not become airborne that the take-off be immediately aborted.
- As per the Airplane Flying Handbook, if the airplane exhibits a natural tendency to lift off before reaching Vr/Vx (where required), it is generally advisable to lift off and accelerate in ground effect and then climb at Vx as appropriate. This method is preferable rather than forcing the airplane to remain on the ground as this may cause a "wheelbarrowing" effect and will hinder acceleration and overall aircraft performance.
- There is no such thing as a "forced take off"- so don't let a bad judgment call
Take-off Procedure (Normal Field)
This procedure is for basic take offs from most airports with relatively long, smooth, paved runways.
- Line up on the runway (verify winds and hold appropriate crosswind controls)
- Smoothly apply full power and verify all engine instrumentation (make sure to keep your hand on the throttle until you are at least 1000AGL)
- Maintain center line with rudder (think feet on the center line, wing into the wind)
- Call out "airspeed alive" when the airspeed needle shows a positive indication
- Adjust crosswind control pressure as required
- Increase back pressure to rotate at Vr (add 1/2 of the gust factor to Vr if gusty winds are present... and let the airplane fly itself off the ground- do not force it to fly)
- Pitch the aircraft to maintain Vy (USE RUDDER to correct for left turning tendencies)
- Maintain the extended center line of the runway by selecting a fixed point on the ground (antenna, warehouse, mountain peak etc.) directly ahead of the airplane
- Climb straight out or depart the airport area with a left 45 degree turn or as otherwise required when reaching above pattern altitude -For flights remaining in the pattern you may begin your turn to cross wind when you are 300ft from pattern altitude
- After reaching at least 1000AGL remove your hand from the throttle and complete your "Climb" checklist
Take off Emergency
- If you encounter any abnormality prior to rotation and if runway remains, reduce power to idle and stop the airplane!
- If the engine fails after rotation, immediately lower the pitch attitude to prevent a stall (Vglide), pull the mixture to idle and turn mags off. Land straight ahead. If you are at least 1000ft agl you may attempt to either return to the airport to elect to land straight ahead.
Definition of Gust Factor from FAA-P-8740-49 (On Landings, Part II): The difference between the steady state wind and the maximum gust.
Sources for above information: FAA-P-8740-49 (On Landings, Part II), FAA-H-8083-3A (Airplane Flying Handbook), Piper Archer II/Cessna 172Q PIM